Haiti Background: The native Arawak Amerindians - who inhabited the island of Hispaniola when it was discovered by Columbus in 1492 - were virtually annihilated by Spanish settlers within 25 years. In the early 17th century, the French established a presence on Hispaniola, and in 1697, Spain ceded to the French the western third of the island - Haiti. The French colony, based on forestry and sugar-related industries, became one of the wealthiest in the Caribbean, but only through the heavy importation of African slaves and considerable environmental degradation. In the late 18th century, Haiti's nearly half million slaves revolted under Toussaint L'OUVERTURE and after a prolonged struggle, became the first black republic to declare its independence in 1804. Haiti has been plagued by political violence for most of its history. It is the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere.

Population: 8,121,622

Median age: total: 18.03 years male: 17.63 years female: 18.44 years (2005 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.26% (2005 est.)

Death rate: 12.34 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)

Infant mortality rate: total: 73.45 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 52.92 years male: 51.58 years female: 54.31 years (2005 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.02 children born/woman (2005 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 280,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: 24,000 (2003 est.)

Haitian Ethnic groups: black 95%, mulatto and white 5%

Religions: Roman Catholic 80%, Protestant 16% (Baptist 10%, Pentecostal 4%, Adventist 1%, other 1%), none 1%, other 3% (1982) note: roughly half of the population practices Voodoo

Languages: French (official), Creole (official) Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 52.9% male: 54.8% female: 51.2% (2003 est.)